Tag Archives: writingcommunities

SUCCESS PHILOSOPHIES WITH DR. CHUBACK: EPISODE 31

In our quest to assist writers in becoming the best they can be and remain motivated, we would like to introduce you to John Chuback, M.D. A cardiovascular surgeon, Dr. Chuback found his goals waylaid by his lack of motivation.

In a series of interviews with Paul W. Reeves, host on Impact Radio USA, Dr. Chuback continues his discussion of the tools leading to success with his book “Make Your Own Damn Cheese: Understanding, Navigating, and Mastering the 3 Mazes of Success.”

Please click on the link below to hear Episode #31 of SUCCESS PHILOSOPHIES WITH DR. CHUBACK, the first episode in the second series, and start enhancing your journey toward success today.

DR. JOHN CHUBACK, a cardiovascular surgeon from New Jersey, is the author of, “Make Your Own Damn Cheese: Understanding, Navigating, and Mastering the 3 Mazes of Success,” “The Straight A Handbook – The 50 Most Powerful Secrets For Ultimate Success In And Out Of The Classroom” and other books.

DR. CHUBACK joins HOST PAUL W. REEVES weekly to discuss his books, “The Straight A Handbook – The 50 Most Powerful Secrets For Ultimate Success In And Out Of The Classroom” and “Make Your Own Damn Cheese“, each of which explores the human mind and becoming all that you can be.

Throughout this portion of the series, Dr. Chuback will discuss “Make Your Own Damn Cheese“, and the research behind his success philosophies.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Audiobooks on Audible

The Straight a Handbook: The 50 Most Powerful Secrets for Ultimate Success in and Out of the Classroom Audible Logo Audible Audiobook – Unabridged

Written by John Chuback, M. D.
Narrated by Paul W. Reeves, Ed. D.

Click for Audible version on Amazon

~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Previous Episodes of “Success Philosophies With Dr. Chuback”

~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Dr. John Chuback

Picture

Dr. John Chuback was born and raised in Bergen County and graduated from the Dwight Englewood School. He earned his medical degree from New Jersey Medical School at UMDNJ, in Newark. Dr. Chuback then completed a five-year General Surgical Residency at Monmouth Medical Center (MMC). Dr. Chuback is the author of Make Your Own Damn CheeseKaboing, and The Straight A Handbook.

All books are available on Amazon. com. 

~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Impact Radio USA

This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is impact-radio-usa-modern-large.jpg

Welcome to ​IMPACT RADIO USA, where we strive to provide the best in news, talk, sports, and music 24 hours a day, 52 weeks per year. Our goal is to keep you as the most informed and entertained Internet Radio audience.

As we are continuing to add content on a daily basis, please feel free to click on the “LISTEN NOW” button at the top of the page to hear us 24 hours a day. While you are here, please check out all of our links to our shows, our podcast page, our blog, and learn how YOU can host your own show with us.  Thank you for listening to IMPACT RADIO USA!!!

Impact Radio USA ListenNow

~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Paul W. Reeves 

This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is 11700698_10204467697476836_1401739541151934347_o.jpg

Paul W. Reeves, Ed. D. is an author, radio talk show host, educator, composer/arranger, and professional musician.

Listen to “Dr. Paul’s Family Talk” on Impact Radio USA and visit Paul’s websitehttps://paulwreeves.com for more information on his books and CDs.

https://www.impactradiousa.com/

This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is book-cover.jpg

WRITING TIPS, TOOLS, AND TIDBITS!: HOMONYMS, HOMOPHONES, and HOMOGRAPHS

Writers Unite!’s mission is to offer a haven for writers to share their work and hone their craft. As the writing process is our focus, author and WU! admin Lynn Miclea has created a series of “tips, tools, and tidbits” about writing for our members or anyone interested in writing to help improve their writing. Check the menu bar for any tips you may have missed or click on this link.

Writing Tips, Tools, and Tidbits!

Images are free use and require no attribution. Image from Pixabay.

HOMONYMS, HOMOPHONES, and HOMOGRAPHS

People often mix up the terms homonyms, homophones, and homographs. Although these terms are similar and have an overlap, they have specific meanings. This should help to keep them straight.

Basically, homonyms sound the same and have the same spelling. Homophones sound the same regardless of spelling. Homographs have the same spelling regardless of how they are pronounced. And all of these words—homonyms, homophones, and homographs—have different meanings regardless of spelling or pronunciation.

Basically, if they sound the same, they are homophones. If they are spelled the same, they are homographs. If they are both spelled the same and sound the same, they are homonyms. Please note that there is an overlap of these word groups. And please also note that some dictionaries and sources use the word homonyms to mean all of these.

***

Homonyms are words that both sound the same and also have the same spelling, but mean different things. Examples: bark and bark, bat and bat, lie and lie, pen and pen, ring and ring, tire and tire. Since homonyms sound the same, they are also homophones, and since they are spelled the same, they are also homographs.

Examples:

  • ball (a round toy for play or sports) / ball (a formal party)
  • bark (a tree’s outer layer) / bark (the sound a dog makes)
  • lie (to recline) / lie (to tell a falsehood)
  • right (correct) / right (opposite of left)
  • rose (a flower) / rose (past tense of rise)
  • tire (to grow fatigued) / tire (part of a wheel)

***

Homophones are words that sound the same but may or may not have the same spelling, and they mean different things. Examples: blew and blue, do and due, eight and ate, know and no, plain and plane, right and write, threw and through. Homophones are pronounced the same no matter how they are spelled.

Examples:

  • ate, eight
  • bear, bare
  • break, brake
  • cell, sell
  • dear, deer
  • flower, flour
  • for, four
  • grate, great
  • hear, here
  • mail, male
  • plain, plane
  • pray, prey
  • right, write
  • see, sea
  • site, sight, cite
  • tale, tail
  • there, their, they’re
  • week, weak

***

Homographs are words that are spelled the same but may or may not have the same pronunciation, and they mean different things. Examples: bass and bass, bow and bow, dove and dove, tear and tear, read and read, lead and lead. Homographs are spelled the same no matter how they are pronounced.

Examples:

  • bow (decorative ribbon) / bow (part of a ship)
  • content (what is contained inside) / content (satisfied)
  • dove (past tense of dive) / dove (a bird)
  • lead (to be a leader) / lead ( a metal)
  • minute (60 seconds) / minute (tiny)
  • tear (salty fluid from your eye) / tear (to rip)

***

Basically, homophones sound the same, homographs are spelled the same, and homonyms do both (sound the same and spelled the same). And even though the words sound and/or are spelled the same, they have different meanings.

Helpful Hint: All three words start with “homo” which means “same.” The endings help define what they mean.

—phone means “sound,” so homophones have the same sound, regardless of spelling.

—graph means “written,” so homographs are written or spelled the same, regardless of pronunciation.

—onym means “name,” so homonyms sound the same and are spelled the same.

Note: Some words fall into more than one category. Also, in some dictionaries, homonyms can be used to refer to all such words in general.

Bark and bark are in all three categories: homonyms (sound the same and spelled the same), homophones (sound the same regardless of spelling), and homographs (spelled the same regardless of pronunciation).

***

Please look at the chart for an easy summary and helpful reminder.

***

I hope you find this helpful. These tips and much more are also on my website and blog, and also in my Grammar Tips book. Thank you!

Website – https://www.lynnmiclea.com/
Blog – https://lynnpuff.wordpress.com/
Grammar Tips Book – https://www.amazon.com/dp/B09N2BQMCG/

WRITING TIPS, TOOLS, AND TIDBITS!: KANGAROO WORDS

Writers Unite!’s mission is to offer a haven for writers to share their work and hone their craft. As the writing process is our focus, author, and WU! admin, Lynn Miclea has created a series of “tips, tools, and tidbits” about writing for our members or anyone interested in writing to help improve their writing. Check the menu bar for any tips you may have missed or click on this link.

Writing Tips, Tools, and Tidbits!

Images are free use and require no attribution. Image from Pixabay.

KANGAROO WORDS

kangaroo word is a word that contains a similar word or synonym inside.

For example, the word aberrant contains errant inside it. Below are a few more examples.

Examples:

  • Allocate — contains the word allot
  • Charisma — contains the word charm
  • Feast — contains the word eat
  • Observe — contains the word see
  • Prosecute — contains the word sue
  • Rampage — contains the word rage
  • Truthfully — contains the word truly

***

Please look at the chart for many more kangaroo words.

I hope you find this interesting and helpful. These and much more are also on my website and blog, and also in my Grammar Tips book. Thank you!

Website – https://www.lynnmiclea.com/
Blog – https://lynnpuff.wordpress.com/
Grammar Tips Book – https://www.amazon.com/dp/B09N2BQMCG/

Writing Tips, Tools, and Tidbits!: CAPITONYMS

Writers Unite!’s mission is to offer a haven for writers to share their work and hone their craft. As the writing process is our focus, author, and WU! admin, Lynn Miclea has created a series of “tips, tools, and tidbits” about writing for our members or anyone interested in writing to help improve their writing. Check the menu bar for any tips you may have missed or click on this link.

Writing Tips, Tools, and Tidbits!

Images are free use and require no attribution. Image from Pixabay.

CAPITONYMS

capitonym is a word that changes its meaning, and sometimes its pronunciation as well, when it is capitalized. These words generally mean one thing with a lower case letter, and another thing when they are capitalized.

For example, rich (lower case) usually means wealthy. However, Rich (with a capital “R”) refers to a man’s name. Below are a few more examples.

Examples:

  • Bill — a name short for William / bill — an amount to be paid
  • Carol — a woman’s name / carol — a hymn or Christmas song
  • March — the third month of the year / march — a style of walking
  • Nice — a city in France / nice — kind or pleasant
  • Turkey — a country / turkey — a North American bird

***

Please look at the chart for many more capitonyms.

***

I hope you find this interesting and helpful. These and much more are also on my website and blog, and also in my Grammar Tips book. Thank you!

Website – https://www.lynnmiclea.com/
Blog – https://lynnpuff.wordpress.com/
Grammar Tips Book – https://www.amazon.com/dp/B09N2BQMCG/

D. A. Ratliff: Why Writers Should Exercise!

Why Writers Should Exercise!

D. A. Ratliff

Before you start sweating, not that kind of exercise. After sitting at a computer writing for several hours, physical exercise might be prudent, but we will discuss that another day. This discussion is about writing exercises that help hone your creative writing skills and why they are essential.

If you belong to an internet or in-person writing group, take a writing class, or are inquisitive and search the internet for information, you are familiar with writing exercises. Let’s look at the myriad of activities created for improving your writing skills.

Writing Skills

These are some skills necessary for writing.

  • Character Development
  • Plot Creation
  • World Building
  • Opening Sentence/Paragraph Hook
  • Creating Tension
  • Dialogue
  • Story Structure
  • Grammar
  • “Writer’s Block”
  • Editing /Word Selection
  • The “Elevator” Blurb
  • Query Letters
  • Synopsis
  • Covers/Cover Blurb

Exercises for Writers

The exercises to practice the skills listed above are numerous. You can do some exercises alone, and some benefit from group participation, all designed to improve the quality of your writing.

The exercises include:

  • Character arc – Write a character at the beginning of a story and the end to show their development or lack of development.
  • World Building – Interview a member of a society, asking questions about the geography and culture.
  • Timed writing sprints – Setting a time limit on an exercise helps focus thoughts.
  • Opening Sentence – From an image or writing prompt, create an opening sentence.
  • Editing/Word Selection – Write a story based on a prompt with a word count limit which requires careful word selection, story structure, and editing of unnecessary content.
  • Query Letters, Synopses, or Cover Blurbs – Writing any of these items from a prompt is helpful, as is offering one of these writing excerpts for peer critique, which also helps hone skills.
  • “Writer’s Block” – There are conflicting opinions on the nature of writer’s block, but, at times, all writers hit an impasse, and writing is elusive. Suggestions include freewriting for a set timeframe, writing a scene further into the story, or writing from a prompt.
  • Read the works of others and learn how they crafted their stories.

You can do many exercises, from focusing on one individual aspect of writing to practicing general writing. Finding writing exercises is as simple as checking with your favorite writing group or using a search engine on the internet.

The Benefits of Writing Exercises

Besides the obvious mechanical skills that writing exercises help improve, there are other reasons for doing these exercises.

The Muse

Perhaps the most important benefit gained from writing exercises is the spark to your muse—your imagination. A common complaint from writers is “I don’t know what to write about” or “I’m stumped and don’t know where to take my story.” While imagination is not an acquired skill, you can stimulate it.

As with any profession or hobby, we can burn out or become weary of the task. When that happens professionally, we turn our attention to another project or take a vacation. A writer or hobbyist can do the same.

Writers can look to the word prompt exercises as a project change. Utilizing prompts to write something new can stimulate your imagination. Vacations are also necessary, and despite all the ‘experts’ telling you that you must write every day, you don’t have to do so. A break from a routine allows you to return with a fresher perspective.

The Fundamentals

There are basic tenets to writing. The story structure that we follow today is the same as the first stories told. As a society, we feel compelled to tell stories to pass on cultural and historical information to following generations and for entertainment.

Stories have a beginning, a middle, and an end. Writing mechanics, sentence structure, grammar, character, plot development, and world-building have, for the most part, remained the same since storytelling began. Exercises that target these components help to reinforce the fundamental skills a writer needs to tell the story effectively. Knowing the fundamentals also allows writers to deviate from traditional structure and add a creative touch to their writing while keeping the story cohesive.

Do not forget one of the best ways to learn the fundaments is to read. Reading is one of the most fundamental exercises you can do. Learn structure, plot construction, character development, and more from other writers. Even writers who are not so skilled can teach us how not to do something.

Focus

An overactive imagination is a wonderful thing for a writer to have. However, too many story ideas can be overwhelming and cause a loss of focus.

There is nothing wrong with having several projects going simultaneously, but task focus is crucial to completing a story or novel. Timed-writing exercises are an effective way of learning to organize thoughts and keep story progression on target. A ten-minute sprint of freewriting or an hour of writing with an end goal in mind sharpens the focus, as does finishing a prompt with a specific word count limit.

Learning to focus as you write helps with the biggest disappointment many writers have—not completing the work they have started. Many novels are started but not finished because of the lack of focus on the goal.

Confidence

You’ve heard about it, imposter syndrome. The belief is that, despite your success, you are not as capable as others think you are and that you don’t deserve any accolades. Nonsense. Self-doubt about your ability to succeed at writing or any endeavor you undertake is not a healthy attribute and will cascade into all facets of your life.

Participating in writing exercises is certainly not the panacea for imposter syndrome, but what it can do is validate that you have writing skills. The proverb, practice makes perfect is true. While perfection is difficult to achieve, practicing and mastering the skills to help you become a better writer will give you the confidence to be the best writer you can be and accept your success no matter how you measure it.

~~~

Writing is many things—fun, tedious, demanding, complex. Competition for readers is intense, and all we can do is offer the best storytelling we can to our readers. But as with any other art form, we do not achieve success without working for it. A dancer, musician, singer, or artist spends hours rehearsing their craft, honing moves, notes, or brushstrokes. A writer must do the same and put in the time to study, read, and embrace the practice—writing exercises. You will be a better writer for it.

Resources for Writing Exercises:

Grammar Exercises: Owl Online Writing Lab https://owl.purdue.edu/owl_exercises/index.html

https://www.creativefuture.org.uk/resource/creative-writing-exercises-structure

WRITING TIPS, TOOLS, AND TIDBITS!: SIT, SET, and SAT

Writers Unite!’s mission is to offer a haven for writers to share their work and hone their craft. As the writing process is our focus, author, and WU! admin, Lynn Miclea has created a series of “tips, tools, and tidbits” about writing for our members or anyone interested in writing to help improve their writing. Check the menu bar for any tips you may have missed or click on this link.

Writing Tips, Tools, and Tidbits!

Images are free use and require no attribution. Image from Pixabay.

SIT, SET, and SAT

People often mix up the words sitsetand satAlthough these words sound similar, they have different meanings and uses. This should help to keep them straight.

***

Sit is a verb that means to be seated or to rest on your butt. It is intransitive, so it does not take a direct object. You can sit, you can tell someone to sit, and you can give a command to sit. The past tense of sit is sat. If you mean to be seated, then use sit.

Examples:

  • She always sits in front of the TV.
  • The cat loves to sit in the sun.
  • Please sit in the recliner and relax.
  • He will sit at the head of the table.
  • I have been sitting here for a long time.
  • Please have everyone sit wherever they are comfortable.

***

Set, when used as a verb, means to place or put. It is transitive which means it takes a direct object. You set something down. The past tense of set is also set. If you mean to place or put something down, then use set.

Examples:

  • Please set the book down on the table.
  • I set the phone down an hour ago and can’t find it.
  • She will set a date for the wedding.
  • He set the bag down on the floor.
  • I will set the keys on the end table.
  • She set the document down in front of him.

***

Sat is the past tense of sit. If you mean you were seated, or want the past tense of sit, use sat.

Examples:

  • He sat on the couch all afternoon.
  • She sat there too long and fell asleep.
  • The dog sat on my lap and licked my face.
  • Everyone sat around the table and started eating.
  • They sat together on the porch and talked.
  • He finally sat down when he got tired.

***

Note: There are other uses of “set” (the sun will set, a set of dishes, etc.), but those are not mixed up with sit or sat, so those meanings are not addressed here.

If you mean to be seated, then use sit.

If you mean to place something, then use set.

If you mean the past tense of sit, then use sat.

He decided to sit after she set the food on the table where they always sat.

***

Please look at the chart for an easy summary and helpful reminder.

***

I hope you find this helpful. These tips and much more are also on my website and blog, and also in my Grammar Tips book. Thank you!

Website – https://www.lynnmiclea.com/
Blog – https://lynnpuff.wordpress.com/
Grammar Tips Book – https://www.amazon.com/dp/B09N2BQMCG/

DR. PAUL’S FAMILY TALK PODCASTS: Peter Moore

PETER MOORE, the Co-Founder of Seamless Entertainment Ltd and The Entertainment Engine podcast from London, joins host Paul W. Reeves to discuss his work in the entertainment industry that spans over several decades, working across many entertainment verticals, including Artists-management, Festival implementation, Finance and Business structure, SYNC for film and TV and working with major labels like Sony (Dance label) helping to sell over 1 million records.

FROM HIS WEBSITE:

“Seamless Entertainment has a diverse range of skill sets to deliver and execute our client’s objectives across music, film, TV, and gaming. We work with our clients to set realistic expectations to meet them, and we are passionate to go above and beyond to exceed them. Our services include working across music supervision for film, TV and Gaming. The team have worked on independent and major film and television productions, commercials, advertisements, and gaming, an unclaimed royalty collection for artists, bands, and rights-holders, and we have our Grammy & Award-Winning in-house music production and songwriting team who write for Film, TV and aspiring music talent projects (singers, songwriters, and musicians).

Seamless is the creator of the entertainment industry podcast called The Entertainment Engine podcast streamed and downloaded on Spotify, Apple Podcasts, Amazon Podcasts, Deezer, Google Podcasts, Castbox, and much more. 

​The Entertainment Engine weekly podcast provides helpful tips on navigating the entertainment industry across Music, Film, and TV for bands, artists, actors, songwriters, and creatives. We have informal chats, providing in-depth knowledge, advice, and professional experience. We’re joined by special guests on the show and keep our listeners updated with current industry news, fun facts, and trends.”

seamlessentertainment.co.uk

—————————–

Admin Note: Welcome to our newest source of information for authors. “Dr. Paul’s Family Talk” radio program on Impact Radio USA offers interesting and entertaining interviews of authors who share their writing journey as inspiration for all writers finding their way. Dr. Paul also interviews individuals who are successful in education, business, finance, conspiracy theorist, medicine, self-help, motivation, musicians, artists, and more. These interviews give insight into various careers providing writing research and possible character ideas.

Look for additional Dr. Paul’s author interviews in the coming weeks on the page found on the menu bar. Enjoy!

Impact Radio USA

Welcome to ​IMPACT RADIO USA, where we strive to provide the best in news, talk, sports, and music 24 hours a day, 52 weeks per year. Our goal is to keep you as the most informed and entertained Internet Radio audience.

As we are continuing to add content on a daily basis, please feel free to click on the “LISTEN NOW” button at the top of the page to hear us 24 hours a day. While you are here, please check out all of our links to our shows, our podcast page, our blog, and learn how YOU can host your own show with us.  Thank you for listening to IMPACT RADIO USA!!!

Impact Radio USA ListenNow

~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Paul W. Reeves 

Paul W. Reeves is an author, radio talk show host, educator, composer/arranger, and professional musician!

Listen to “Dr. Paul’s Family Talk” on Impact Radio USA and visit Paul’s websitehttps://paulwreeves.com for more information on his books and CDs.

https://www.impactradiousa.com

SUCCESS PHILOSOPHIES WITH DR. CHUBACK: EPISODE 25

In our quest to assist writers in becoming the best they can be and remain motivated, we would like to introduce you to John Chuback, M.D. A cardiovascular surgeon, Dr. Chuback found his goals waylaid by his lack of motivation.

In a series of interviews with Paul W. Reeves, host on Impact Radio USA, Dr. Chuback continues his discussion of the tools leading to success with his book “Make Your Own Damn Cheese: Understanding, Navigating, and Mastering the 3 Mazes of Success.”

Please click on the link below to hear Episode #25 of SUCCESS PHILOSOPHIES WITH DR. CHUBACK, the first episode in the second series, and start enhancing your journey toward success today.

DR. JOHN CHUBACK, a cardiovascular surgeon from New Jersey, is the author of, “Make Your Own Damn Cheese: Understanding, Navigating, and Mastering the 3 Mazes of Success,” “The Straight A Handbook – The 50 Most Powerful Secrets For Ultimate Success In And Out Of The Classroom” and other books.

DR. CHUBACK joins HOST PAUL W. REEVES weekly to discuss his books, “The Straight A Handbook – The 50 Most Powerful Secrets For Ultimate Success In And Out Of The Classroom” and “Make Your Own Damn Cheese“, each of which explores the human mind and becoming all that you can be.

Throughout this portion of the series, Dr. Chuback will discuss “Make Your Own Damn Cheese“, and the research behind his success philosophies.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Audiobooks on Audible

The Straight a Handbook: The 50 Most Powerful Secrets for Ultimate Success in and Out of the Classroom Audible Logo Audible Audiobook – Unabridged

Written by John Chuback, M. D.
Narrated by Paul W. Reeves, Ed. D

Click for Audible version on Amazon

~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Previous Episodes of “Success Philosophies With Dr. Chuback”

~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Dr. John Chuback

Picture

Dr. John Chuback was born and raised in Bergen County and graduated from the Dwight Englewood School. He earned his medical degree from New Jersey Medical School at UMDNJ, in Newark. Dr. Chuback then completed a five-year General Surgical Residency at Monmouth Medical Center (MMC). Dr. Chuback is the author of Make Your Own Damn CheeseKaboing, and The Straight A Handbook.

All books are available on Amazon. com. 

~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Impact Radio USA

This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is impact-radio-usa-modern-large.jpg

Welcome to ​IMPACT RADIO USA, where we strive to provide the best in news, talk, sports, and music 24 hours a day, 52 weeks per year. Our goal is to keep you as the most informed and entertained Internet Radio audience.

As we are continuing to add content on a daily basis, please feel free to click on the “LISTEN NOW” button at the top of the page to hear us 24 hours a day. While you are here, please check out all of our links to our shows, our podcast page, our blog, and learn how YOU can host your own show with us.  Thank you for listening to IMPACT RADIO USA!!!

Impact Radio USA ListenNow

~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Paul W. Reeves 

This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is 11700698_10204467697476836_1401739541151934347_o.jpg

Paul W. Reeves, Ed. D. is an author, radio talk show host, educator, composer/arranger, and professional musician.

Listen to “Dr. Paul’s Family Talk” on Impact Radio USA and visit Paul’s websitehttps://paulwreeves.com for more information on his books and CDs.

https://www.impactradiousa.com/

This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is book-cover.jpg

WRITING TIPS, TOOLS, AND TIDBITS!: THAT, WHICH, and WHO

Writers Unite!’s mission is to offer a haven for writers to share their work and hone their craft. As the writing process is our focus, author, and WU! admin, Lynn Miclea has created a series of “tips, tools, and tidbits” about writing for our members or anyone interested in writing to help improve their writing. Check the menu bar for any tips you may have missed or click on this link.

Writing Tips, Tools, and Tidbits!

Images are free use and require no attribution. Image from Pixabay.

THAT, WHICH, and WHO

People often mix up the words thatwhich, and whoAlthough similar in use, there are specific times each word should be used.

For that and which, the proper word to use depends on whether the clause is a defining, restrictive clause needed to understand the sentence, or if it’s a non-defining, nonrestrictive clause that would not change the meaning if it were removed. Knowing how the clause is used will help to use the words properly.

Who should be used anytime it refers to a person, regardless of the type of clause.

***

That is used for a defining, restrictive, or essential clause. If the clause is important or crucial to understanding or defining the word or sentence, or if removing the clause would change the meaning of the sentence, use that.

Examples:

  • My pen that was used by a celebrity is safe in a drawer.
  • My dress that got ripped is being repaired.
  • Any book that is written by my favorite author is good.
  • The song that you sang last night is beautiful.
  • The car that is always parked in front of my house has a flat tire.
  • This is the book that I told you about.
  • The chair that has a broken leg has been set aside.
  • The book that was signed by Stephen King is my favorite.
  • The shoes that I just bought hurt my feet.
  • The vase that was in the den fell and is now cracked.

***

Which is used in a non-defining, nonrestrictive, or nonessential clause. If the clause is not important or crucial to understanding or defining the word or sentence, or if you can remove it without changing the meaning of the sentence, then use whichClauses using which are generally separated with commas.

Examples:

  • My car, which was in an accident, is still in the shop.
  • My red dress, which got ripped, is being repaired.
  • This cake, which you baked for us, is delicious.
  • My friend’s birthday party, which was at the pizza place, was wonderful.
  • My husband’s truck, which is red, is fun to drive.
  • Jewelry, which can be expensive, is not important to me.
  • My favorite shoes, which I’ve worn for years, have holes in them.
  • The new book, which I can only read an hour each day, is excellent.
  • Proper grammar, which is taught in school, is essential for good writing.
  • The vase I love, which was in the den, fell and is now cracked.

***

To explain this further, the following two sentences mean different things.

  • The short dress that is pink is my favorite.
  • The short dress, which is pink, is my favorite.

The first sentence indicates there are many short dresses, and the one that is pink is my favorite.

The second sentence indicates there is only one short dress, and it happens to be pink.

***

Who should always be used when referring to a person, whether it’s a restrictive or nonrestrictive, a defining or non-defining clause. The type of clause does not matter. If it refers to a person, then use who.

Examples:

  • My friend who was in an accident is doing much better now.
  • The man who caused the accident did not have insurance.
  • The woman who baked this cake did a great job.
  • My best friend, who is home from college, is coming over.
  • That new guy who is really cute just asked me out.
  • The woman in accounting, who I’ve had a crush on, will be training me.
  • The mail carrier, who has delivered our mail for years, is retiring.
  • The history teacher, who is very tall, is also a basketball coach.
  • The person who I was dating was very rude.
  • The neighbor who is very helpful to me is moving away.

***

In general, if removing the clause changes the meaning of the sentence, or if the clause is needed to understand or make sense of the sentence, use that.

If removing the clause does not change the meaning, or if the clause adds information but the sentence would still make sense without it, use which.

Usually, nonrestrictive clauses, which use which, are separated by commas, em-dashes, or parentheses.

However, regardless of the clause, whether a restrictive or nonrestrictive clause, if it refers to a person, use who instead of that or which.

***

Please look at the chart for an easy summary and helpful reminder.

***

I hope you find this helpful. These tips and much more are also on my website and blog, and also in my Grammar Tips book.

Thank you!
~~~
Website – https://www.lynnmiclea.com/
Blog – https://lynnpuff.wordpress.com/
Grammar Tips Book – https://www.amazon.com/dp/B09N2BQMCG/

WRITING TIPS, TOOLS, AND TIDBITS!: STATIONERY versus STATIONARY

Writers Unite!’s mission is to offer a haven for writers to share their work and hone their craft. As the writing process is our focus, author, and WU! admin, Lynn Miclea has created a series of “tips, tools, and tidbits” about writing for our members or anyone interested in writing to help improve their writing. Check the menu bar for any tips you may have missed or click on this link.

Writing Tips, Tools, and Tidbits!

Images are free use and require no attribution. Image from Pixabay.

STATIONERY versus STATIONARY

People often mix up the words stationery and stationary. Although these words sound the same and there is only one letter different, they are different parts of speech and have different meanings and uses. This should help to use them properly.

***

Stationery is a noun meaning paper for writing letters, or writing items such as paper, pens, cards, and envelopes. If you mean paper for letter writing, use stationery.

Examples:

  • She bought new stationery to write her thank-you notes.
  • His grandmother always sent him letters on lavender stationery.
  • She loved writing letters on her new stationery.
  • He went to the stationery store for new pens.
  • She could not find paper and went out to buy new stationery.
  • Hotels often provide complimentary stationery.
  • My mother always used pink stationery with matching envelopes.
  • I still have a lot of unused stationery in my desk.

***

Stationary is an adjective meaning not moving, immobile, or unchanging. If you mean not moving, use stationary.

Examples:

  • He stood stationary, afraid to move.
  • The accident happened when she drove into a stationary car.
  • He loved exercising on his stationary bike.
  • The hurricane seemed to be stationary and stayed in one place.
  • She hoped her income would increase, but it remained stationary.
  • The population of the city remained stationary for many years.
  • He sat there stationary when the boss came in.
  • She told her children to remain stationary while she put away the laundry.

***

Hint: Stationery contains e as in envelope, and both stationery and paper contain er.

Stationary contains a as in stay, parked, or at rest.

If you want a noun meaning paper to write letters, use stationery.

If you want an adjective meaning not moving, use stationary.

She sat stationary in one position, as she wrote a letter on her new stationery.

***

Please look at the chart for an easy summary and helpful reminder.

***

I hope you find this helpful. These tips and more grammar tips and tools are also on my website and blog, and also in my Grammar Tips book.
Thank you!

Website – https://www.lynnmiclea.com/
Blog – https://lynnpuff.wordpress.com/
Grammar Tips Book – https://www.amazon.com/dp/B09N2BQMCG/