D. A. Ratliff: Go With the Flow. How to Keep Your Reader Interested.

D. A. Ratliff 

My job as an author is to tell the story in the best way possible, to make it flow seamlessly and get the reader to keep turning the page. — Patrick Carman

Let’s face it. We write for many reasons, among them because we want someone to read our words, to listen to our story. The last thing we want is for them to throw the book down after the first chapter and walk away, muttering they will never buy a book by that author again.

How do we keep them from being disappointed? We write a story so well that they cannot put the book down. Creating that story is not difficult if you pay attention to story structure components as you write.

When structuring a story, character development is imperative. Your reader should identify with the protagonist and make the character’s goal the reader’s goal. Be mindful when world-building to create an environment that catches your reader’s imagination and allows them to feel present in the protagonist’s world.

Your story needs to be coherent and plausible regardless of genre. You can be as imaginative as you want, but your magic and technology must be conceivable even in the fantasy and science-fiction genres.

Grammar and sentence structure should be correct. You can take liberties with dialogue but not with narrative. The narrative should be without grammatical errors, which cause the reader to break their immersion in the story.

It is flow, created by assembling these skills, which takes your story from ordinary to one your reader cannot put down.


The concept of flow in a novel has an elusive definition. It borders on the adage that you will know it when you ‘read’ it. Flow is a combination of several factors that create a cohesive story. The question is how to achieve flow. There are a few critical things that you should do.

The Hook:

As discussed above, it is essential to connect with your reader. If you do not, they will never become engaged in your story. First, your opening sentence/paragraph, known as a hook, should set the mood and grab the reader’s attention. The following paragraphs,  the next few pages, or even the first chapter can set the tone and interest of your novel.

Do these things to create a hook:

  • Place your character in a unique situation.
  • Create an exciting image, often of the locale where you set the story.
  • Start at a crucial point in your story.
  • Create mystery and allow your reader to wonder why, where, or what of your story.
  • Highlight an unusual character.

Do not do these things:

  • Be overly descriptive.
  • Start with useless information.
  • Start with dialogue. No one knows anything about your character yet.
  • Include a lot of characters in your opening.

The last “don’t” is quite telling. We discussed earlier that your reader must develop a relationship with your main character. They need to identify, sympathize, empathize, and root for the main character to achieve their goal. The opening of your story is where you create that bond. If you attempt to introduce too many characters too soon, your reader may bond with a character that is not the story’s focus. The connection between the main character and the reader must be strong.

Make It Clear:

All the words I use in my stories can be found in the dictionary—it’s just a matter of arranging them into the right sentences. ~Somerset Maugham

Coherency is required. Well-crafted sentences, paragraphs, and carefully chosen words present a clear message and allow comprehension. If your reader does not understand the story, they will not continue reading. Think of it as if you were giving someone directions. You should not say, “Go two miles and turn left,” nor should you describe all the businesses, houses, and landmarks on the way. The former is too little information, the latter too much. Choose the precise words to convey meaning. Extraneous words lead to confusion.

There must also be continuity. If you state your character is a redhead and four chapters later declare her a brunette, your reader will notice, and error breaks the flow. Maintain the information you present about your characters, locale, notable events, and timeline. They must remain consistent. If they do not, someone who has become engrossed in the story will disconnect from the mistake.


Sentence to sentence, or chapter to chapter, how you connect your thoughts affects the flow of your story. A single word, a phrase, or a paragraph, bridging one thought to another, including emotion, time, location, or characters, provides a smooth transition. A ‘cliffhanger’ at the end of a chapter is an excellent transition. It follows the intent of the transitional paragraph to propel your reader forward and connect two segments of your story.

Choose your words carefully as you write the transitional sequence. Don’t embellish, but instead, provide concise meaning so that your reader reacts the way you intend.

Sentence Structure:

Think of a beautiful piece of music and how it varies in tempo and volume. Slow or soft to create a relaxed or somber mood; fast, building to a crescendo, to denote excitement, action, or power. The structure of a novel mimics the patterns we recognize in music. Notes or words matter, and how the reader or listener responds reveals how successful we are in conveying our intended meaning.

How to accomplish flow with sentence structure:

  • Vary sentence type. Mix simple, compound, complex, and compound-complex sentences
  • Be cognizant of word order. Do not start several sentences with the same subject. Mix up nouns, gerunds, prepositions, or clauses. A lack of variety can be both distracting and irritating to the reader.
  • Incorporate sentences of varying lengths. Sentences that are too long will often bore a reader, and a bored reader will quickly lose interest. Sentences that are too short will quicken the story’s pace and leave your reader breathless.

 Pacing the Action:

Pacing is not the sort of thing you can plan out beforehand, but you’re always aware of it as you write because you need to make constant decisions. — Jean Hanff Korelitz

Without a doubt, following these suggestions will improve the flow. How quickly the story unfolds helps with story structure.

With the skills discussed so far, you can achieve the action needed to move your story along and the quiet times to give your readers a rest from the action. These periods should alternate while propelling your reader to continue reading.

In your first chapter, you have ‘hooked’ your reader with an opening that intrigues them. You introduced the main characters, the plot, and your main character’s goal.

Throughout your story, you will provide plot points to move the action forward. By recognizing how to place your minor and major actions, you can maintain a smooth flow. Think of the story as waxing and waning while building to the final climax.

When writing a novel-length story, writers sometimes find themselves with issues when writing the middle, referred to as the ‘saggy’ middle. It is easy to lose your way to the ending unless you have a mid-action sequence in mind to keep the reader involved.

Many writers start a project with the beginning and ending in mind. Add what you want to happen in the middle of that formula. You will find that the story will move forward with ease using the tools suggested and pace the action to keep a smooth flow.

Keeping the Flow:

Writing, despite misconceptions by some, is not an easy task. It requires hard work and concentration to create a story that a reader enjoys from the opening words until the closing sentence. There are no shortcuts. A writer must consider each word as essential or not, use correct grammar and structure, and ponder every action and every repose before declaring a story finished.

As stated, flow is an elusive task, but one the writer must conquer so the reader can go with the flow.

Please visit D. A. Ratliff on her blog: https://daratliffauthor.wordpress.com/








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